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    Let Us Meet Now ganzer film STREAM deutsch KOMPLETT Online Andersen Bibcode : PNAS. The data is Es Stephen King Buch Suits Kinox To Deutsch, and it is envisaged that other editions will follow as more information comes to hand. Despite the difficulties, analysis of ice core and ocean sediment cores [33] has provided a credible record of glacials and interglacials over the past few million years. With a program called ' Super Paint ' and a lot of Iphone Airpods Pro work hand tracing first the maps of Europe Ikea Idee atlases, then scanning the images on the tracing paper, then merging the scanned images together, then tracing these digital scans on the computer screenI made my own black and white map. The definition of the Quaternary as beginning 2. May the wind be always at your back. Geology portal Paleontology portal. These also confirm the linkage between ice ages and continental crust phenomena such as glacial Collide Deutsch, drumlins, and glacial erratics. Canada Arrowhead Provincial ParkOntario Big Rock glacial erraticAlberta Cypress Hills CanadaSaskatchewan Eramosa Aladdin KritikOntario Eskers Provincial ParkBritish Columbia Foothills Erratics TrainAlberta Lion's Head Provincial ParkOntario Origin of the Oak Ridges MoraineOntario Ovayok Territorial ParkNunavut. A new glaciogeomorphological SE—NW diagonal profile through Tibet and its consequences for the glacial isostasy and Ice Age cycle".

    This is a wonderful map, also from Professor Clark's team at the University of Sheffield. Things to note are that a substantial part of the British Isles was never glaciated, and that there was a huge sea ice dammed lake in parts of the East Anglia - East Midlands area.

    The data is from , and it is envisaged that other editions will follow as more information comes to hand. Clark, C. Bateman, M. Boreas 33 4 SHERPA Archive version open access doi Note that the ice sheet shown on Britain in this map is much smaller for the same date than most other maps.

    Photo: National Geographic Vol. Ice Age conditions in Europe A: The position of the polar timberline in present-day Europe B: The position of the timberline at the most severe stage of the Würm Ice Age.

    C: The limits of glacial debris deposited during the Würm Ice Age. D: The limits of glacial debris deposited during the Riss and Mindel Ice Age.

    Photo: Secrets of the Ice Age by Evan Hadingham, Note that the permafrost level came to just north of Lascaux and Chauvet, and that Predmost Dolni Vestonice and Willendorf were within the permafrost zone.

    It is important to realise the changes in climate towards the end of the last ice age. The history of the development of modern man falls into the most recent geological age, the Quaternary.

    It began 2. From a climatic point of view, the quaternary can be divided into cold and warm periods. In contrast to climatically stable warm periods, the climate of the cold periods was characterised by changes from warmer to extremely cold phases.

    This is confirmed by the remains of hippos from deposits near the Thames. Between the Eem and the Holocene lies the last cold period, which is here referred to as the Vistula.

    Between the glaciated areas, which extended from Schleswig-Holstein in the north, to the south to the foothills of the Alps, a life threatening dry and cold frost regime expanded.

    At first it was still drier in Central Europe, with wide, open grasslands, but soon the rainfall was enough to support a closed forest.

    Rephotography of a poster in the LVR-Landesmuseum Bonn: Don Hitchcock Source and text: LVR-Landesmuseum Bonn, Germany.

    Sea-level changes during the Pleistocene. The dotted line shows where the level would be if the modern ice caps were melted. Note: I cannot work out where the extra water would come from for levels above that at which all the ice caps are melted.

    The point when Britain became an island is a defining moment in our history. Scientists have, however, always been puzzled as to exactly how we lost our land link with the Continent.

    Now researchers say they had found the answer in the shape of a massive flood which breached the ridge joining Kent and France. They said it would have taken only days for what we now know as the English Channel to have filled with water.

    The event is thought to have taken place between , and , years ago. Britain's fate as an island was sealed by a second massive flood a few thousand years later, the team from Imperial College London said.

    The flood waters came from the southern reaches of the North Sea which had been dammed off into a lake by the landbridge at Dover and glaciers to the north.

    Once released, the water carved out a channel 15 miles wide and 50 yards deep through the chalky soil. They said this evidence suggested the valley - now under the Channel - was the result of a sudden flood, delivering one million cubic metres of water every second.

    The so- called 'megaflood' may have lasted several months and by the time it subsided, a vast, uncrossable waterway separated Britain from the rest of Europe.

    The river was the largest in Europe, draining the Rhine, the Thames, the Solent, the Rother, the Seine and the Somme.

    It also created a barrier to Neanderthal hunters who had previously been regular visitors to Britain. This event sent another huge torrent of water into the English Channel and further widened the Straits of Dover.

    Legend: 1 - continental a and maritime b glaciers, 2 - open sea, 3 - lakes, 4 - elongated elevations, 5 - courses of waterways, 6 - primeval valleys Grosvald 97 and major sites of prehistoric art before A and after B, C the glacial maximum.

    Note in particular the extensive lakes ponded behind the ice, fed by the north flowing rivers. Note also the increased size of the Caspian and Aral Seas, and the reduced size of the Black Sea.

    Map of the extent of the ice during the last ice age years before the present. Map of the extent of the ice during the last ice age years before the present, just before the final retreat of the ice.

    Map of the extent of the ice during the last glacial maximum in northern Eurasia, showing the ice sheets, floating ice, and the ice-dammed lakes, as well as the margins of lakes such as Lake Black the present Black Sea, much reduced in size , Lake Caspian, Lake Aral, and the huge Lake Mansi, as well as many smaller lakes.

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    Back to Don's Maps Ice Age Maps showing the extent of the ice sheets The last great ice age began around years ago.

    Davis, University of Sheffield Using the maps, researchers will be able to understand the mechanisms and rate of change of ice sheet retreat, allowing them to make predictions for our polar regions, whose ice sheets appear to be melting as a result of temperature increases in the air and oceans.

    The maps are based on new information on glacial landforms, such as moraines and drumlins, which were discovered using new technology such as remote sensing data that is able to image the land surface and seafloor at unprecedented resolutions.

    Experts combined this new information with that from fieldwork, some of it dating back to the nineteenth century, to produce the final maps of retreat.

    Professor Chris Clark, from the University of Sheffield's Department of Geography, said: "It took us over 10 years to gather all the information in order to produce these maps, and we are delighted with the results, It is great to be able to visualise the ice sheet and notice that retreat speeds up and slows down, and it is vital of course that we learn exactly why.

    With such understanding we will be able to better predict ice losses in Greenland and Antarctica. In our next phase of work we hope to really tighten up on the timing and rates of retreat in more detail, by dropping tethered corers from a ship to extract seafloor sediments that can be radiocarbon dated.

    Rephotography of a poster in the LVR-Landesmuseum Bonn: Don Hitchcock Source and text: LVR-Landesmuseum Bonn, Germany Sea-level changes during the Pleistocene.

    Taken together, the two floods were probably more dramatic than the breaching of the Straits of Gibraltar that flooded the Mediterranean 5. During the ice ages, when much of the northern hemisphere's water was locked up in vast ice sheets, sea levels dropped by yards, allowing Neanderthal men and women to walk from Brittany to Cornwall.

    But even when sea levels were at their highest, humans were able to cross the 'Weald-Artois' chalk ridge linking England to France.

    All that changed when the land bridge was breached. The Imperial College study is published today in the journal Nature. Maps of the extent of the Ice My thanks to Thalion for bringing this source to my attention.

    All three maps below come from an excellent source which is the printed version of the electronic journal: Folklore Vol. Grosswald, M.

    Baker, and K. Gregory eds in Palaeohydrology and Environmental Change , pp. Quaternary Science Reviews, doi Back to Don's Maps.

    Recent additions, changes and updates to Don's Maps File last updated: Monday, 03rd Sep More photographs of sites and venuses are always welcome!

    If you would like a particular archaeological site to be covered here, if you have questions or comments, or if you have any photographs or information which would be useful for Don's Maps please contact Don Hitchcock at don donsmaps.

    To obtain the highest resolution I have, you need to click the small image thumbnail on the web page, when the full, higher resolution image will appear on your screen, from which you can copy or download it.

    Outside these ages, the Earth seems to have been ice free even in high latitudes; [34] [35] such periods are known as greenhouse periods. Rocks from the earliest well-established ice age, called the Huronian , have been dated to around 2.

    Several hundreds of kilometers of the Huronian Supergroup are exposed 10 to kilometers 6. Marie to Sudbury, northeast of Lake Huron, with giant layers of now-lithified till beds, dropstones , varves , outwash , and scoured basement rocks.

    Correlative Huronian deposits have been found near Marquette, Michigan , and correlation has been made with Paleoproterozoic glacial deposits from Western Australia.

    The Huronian ice age was caused by the elimination of atmospheric methane , a greenhouse gas , during the Great Oxygenation Event. The next well-documented ice age, and probably the most severe of the last billion years, occurred from to million years ago the Cryogenian period and may have produced a Snowball Earth in which glacial ice sheets reached the equator, [38] possibly being ended by the accumulation of greenhouse gases such as CO 2 produced by volcanoes.

    The Andean-Saharan occurred from to million years ago, during the Late Ordovician and the Silurian period. The evolution of land plants at the onset of the Devonian period caused a long term increase in planetary oxygen levels and reduction of CO 2 levels, which resulted in the late Paleozoic icehouse.

    Its former name, the Karoo glaciation, was named after the glacial tills found in the Karoo region of South Africa. There were extensive polar ice caps at intervals from to million years ago in South Africa during the Carboniferous and early Permian Periods.

    Correlatives are known from Argentina, also in the center of the ancient supercontinent Gondwanaland. Since then, the world has seen cycles of glaciation with ice sheets advancing and retreating on 40, and ,year time scales called glacial periods , glacials or glacial advances, and interglacial periods, interglacials or glacial retreats.

    The earth is currently in an interglacial, and the last glacial period ended about 10, years ago. All that remains of the continental ice sheets are the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and smaller glaciers such as on Baffin Island.

    The definition of the Quaternary as beginning 2. The Antarctic ice sheet began to form earlier, at about 34 Ma, in the mid- Cenozoic Eocene-Oligocene Boundary.

    The term Late Cenozoic Ice Age is used to include this early phase. Ice ages can be further divided by location and time; for example, the names Riss ,—, years bp and Würm 70,—10, years bp refer specifically to glaciation in the Alpine region.

    The maximum extent of the ice is not maintained for the full interval. The scouring action of each glaciation tends to remove most of the evidence of prior ice sheets almost completely, except in regions where the later sheet does not achieve full coverage.

    Within the current glaciation, more temperate and more severe periods have occurred. The colder periods are called glacial periods , the warmer periods interglacials , such as the Eemian Stage.

    The glacial cycles of the late Paleozoic ice house are likely responsible for the deposition of cyclothems. Glacials are characterized by cooler and drier climates over most of the earth and large land and sea ice masses extending outward from the poles.

    Mountain glaciers in otherwise unglaciated areas extend to lower elevations due to a lower snow line. Sea levels drop due to the removal of large volumes of water above sea level in the icecaps.

    There is evidence that ocean circulation patterns are disrupted by glaciations. The glacials and interglacials coincide with changes in orbital forcing of climate due to Milankovitch cycles , which are periodic changes in the Earth's orbit and the tilt of the Earth's rotational axis.

    The earth has been in an interglacial period known as the Holocene for around 11, years, [43] and an article in Nature in argues that it might be most analogous to a previous interglacial that lasted 28, years.

    Moreover, anthropogenic forcing from increased greenhouse gases is estimated to potentially outweigh the orbital forcing of the Milankovitch cycles for hundreds of thousand of years.

    Each glacial period is subject to positive feedback which makes it more severe, and negative feedback which mitigates and in all cases so far eventually ends it.

    An important form of feedback is provided by the Earth's albedo , which is how much of the sun's energy is reflected rather than absorbed by the Earth.

    Ice and snow increase Earth's albedo, while forests reduce its albedo. When the air temperature decreases, ice and snow fields grow, and they reduce forest cover.

    This continues until competition with a negative feedback mechanism forces the system to an equilibrium.

    In , Ewing and Donn [46] hypothesized that an ice-free Arctic Ocean leads to increased snowfall at high latitudes. When low-temperature ice covers the Arctic Ocean there is little evaporation or sublimation and the polar regions are quite dry in terms of precipitation, comparable to the amount found in mid-latitude deserts.

    This low precipitation allows high-latitude snowfalls to melt during the summer. An ice-free Arctic Ocean absorbs solar radiation during the long summer days, and evaporates more water into the Arctic atmosphere.

    With higher precipitation, portions of this snow may not melt during the summer and so glacial ice can form at lower altitudes and more southerly latitudes, reducing the temperatures over land by increased albedo as noted above.

    Furthermore, under this hypothesis the lack of oceanic pack ice allows increased exchange of waters between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, warming the Arctic and cooling the North Atlantic.

    Current projected consequences of global warming include a largely ice-free Arctic Ocean within 5—20 years. Such a reduction by reducing the effects of the Gulf Stream would have a cooling effect on northern Europe, which in turn would lead to increased low-latitude snow retention during the summer.

    Ice sheets that form during glaciations erode the land beneath them. This can reduce the land area above sea level and thus diminish the amount of space on which ice sheets can form.

    This mitigates the albedo feedback, as does the rise in sea level that accompanies the reduced area of ice sheets, since open ocean has a lower albedo than land.

    Another negative feedback mechanism is the increased aridity occurring with glacial maxima, which reduces the precipitation available to maintain glaciation.

    The glacial retreat induced by this or any other process can be amplified by similar inverse positive feedbacks as for glacial advances. According to research published in Nature Geoscience , human emissions of carbon dioxide CO 2 will defer the next ice age.

    Researchers used data on Earth's orbit to find the historical warm interglacial period that looks most like the current one and from this have predicted that the next ice age would usually begin within 1, years.

    They go on to predict that emissions have been so high that it will not. The causes of ice ages are not fully understood for either the large-scale ice age periods or the smaller ebb and flow of glacial—interglacial periods within an ice age.

    The consensus is that several factors are important: atmospheric composition , such as the concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane the specific levels of the previously mentioned gases are now able to be seen with the new ice core samples from EPICA Dome C in Antarctica over the past , years ; changes in the earth's orbit around the Sun known as Milankovitch cycles ; the motion of tectonic plates resulting in changes in the relative location and amount of continental and oceanic crust on the earth's surface, which affect wind and ocean currents ; variations in solar output ; the orbital dynamics of the Earth—Moon system; the impact of relatively large meteorites and volcanism including eruptions of supervolcanoes.

    Some of these factors influence each other. For example, changes in Earth's atmospheric composition especially the concentrations of greenhouse gases may alter the climate, while climate change itself can change the atmospheric composition for example by changing the rate at which weathering removes CO 2.

    Maureen Raymo , William Ruddiman and others propose that the Tibetan and Colorado Plateaus are immense CO 2 "scrubbers" with a capacity to remove enough CO 2 from the global atmosphere to be a significant causal factor of the 40 million year Cenozoic Cooling trend.

    They further claim that approximately half of their uplift and CO 2 "scrubbing" capacity occurred in the past 10 million years.

    There is evidence that greenhouse gas levels fell at the start of ice ages and rose during the retreat of the ice sheets, but it is difficult to establish cause and effect see the notes above on the role of weathering.

    Greenhouse gas levels may also have been affected by other factors which have been proposed as causes of ice ages, such as the movement of continents and volcanism.

    The Snowball Earth hypothesis maintains that the severe freezing in the late Proterozoic was ended by an increase in CO 2 levels in the atmosphere, mainly from volcanoes, and some supporters of Snowball Earth argue that it was caused in the first place by a reduction in atmospheric CO 2.

    The hypothesis also warns of future Snowball Earths. In , further evidence was provided that changes in solar insolation provide the initial trigger for the earth to warm after an Ice Age, with secondary factors like increases in greenhouse gases accounting for the magnitude of the change.

    The geological record appears to show that ice ages start when the continents are in positions which block or reduce the flow of warm water from the equator to the poles and thus allow ice sheets to form.

    The ice sheets increase Earth's reflectivity and thus reduce the absorption of solar radiation. With less radiation absorbed the atmosphere cools; the cooling allows the ice sheets to grow, which further increases reflectivity in a positive feedback loop.

    The ice age continues until the reduction in weathering causes an increase in the greenhouse effect. There are three main contributors from the layout of the continents that obstruct the movement of warm water to the poles: [57].

    Since today's Earth has a continent over the South Pole and an almost land-locked ocean over the North Pole, geologists believe that Earth will continue to experience glacial periods in the geologically near future.

    Some scientists believe that the Himalayas are a major factor in the current ice age, because these mountains have increased Earth's total rainfall and therefore the rate at which carbon dioxide is washed out of the atmosphere, decreasing the greenhouse effect.

    The history of the Himalayas broadly fits the long-term decrease in Earth's average temperature since the mid-Eocene , 40 million years ago.

    Another important contribution to ancient climate regimes is the variation of ocean currents , which are modified by continent position, sea levels and salinity, as well as other factors.

    They have the ability to cool e. The closing of the Isthmus of Panama about 3 million years ago may have ushered in the present period of strong glaciation over North America by ending the exchange of water between the tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

    Analyses suggest that ocean current fluctuations can adequately account for recent glacial oscillations. This realigned the thermohaline circulation in the Atlantic, increasing heat transport into the Arctic, which melted the polar ice accumulation and reduced other continental ice sheets.

    The release of water raised sea levels again, restoring the ingress of colder water from the Pacific with an accompanying shift to northern hemisphere ice accumulation.

    Matthias Kuhle 's geological theory of Ice Age development was suggested by the existence of an ice sheet covering the Tibetan Plateau during the Ice Ages Last Glacial Maximum?

    According to Kuhle, the plate-tectonic uplift of Tibet past the snow-line has led to a surface of c. The reflection of energy into space resulted in a global cooling, triggering the Pleistocene Ice Age.

    Because this highland is at a subtropical latitude, with 4 to 5 times the insolation of high-latitude areas, what would be Earth's strongest heating surface has turned into a cooling surface.

    Kuhle explains the interglacial periods by the ,year cycle of radiation changes due to variations in Earth's orbit.

    This comparatively insignificant warming, when combined with the lowering of the Nordic inland ice areas and Tibet due to the weight of the superimposed ice-load, has led to the repeated complete thawing of the inland ice areas.

    The Milankovitch cycles are a set of cyclic variations in characteristics of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. Each cycle has a different length, so at some times their effects reinforce each other and at other times they partially cancel each other.

    There is strong evidence that the Milankovitch cycles affect the occurrence of glacial and interglacial periods within an ice age. The present ice age is the most studied and best understood, particularly the last , years, since this is the period covered by ice cores that record atmospheric composition and proxies for temperature and ice volume.

    The combined effects of the changing distance to the Sun, the precession of the Earth's axis , and the changing tilt of the Earth's axis redistribute the sunlight received by the Earth.

    Of particular importance are changes in the tilt of the Earth's axis, which affect the intensity of seasons. It is widely believed that ice sheets advance when summers become too cool to melt all of the accumulated snowfall from the previous winter.

    Some believe that the strength of the orbital forcing is too small to trigger glaciations, but feedback mechanisms like CO 2 may explain this mismatch.

    While Milankovitch forcing predicts that cyclic changes in the Earth's orbital elements can be expressed in the glaciation record, additional explanations are necessary to explain which cycles are observed to be most important in the timing of glacial—interglacial periods.

    In particular, during the last , years, the dominant period of glacial—interglacial oscillation has been , years, which corresponds to changes in Earth's orbital eccentricity and orbital inclination.

    Yet this is by far the weakest of the three frequencies predicted by Milankovitch. During the period 3.

    The reasons for dominance of one frequency versus another are poorly understood and an active area of current research, but the answer probably relates to some form of resonance in the Earth's climate system.

    Recent work suggests that the K year cycle dominates due to increased southern-pole sea-ice increasing total solar reflectivity.

    The "traditional" Milankovitch explanation struggles to explain the dominance of the ,year cycle over the last 8 cycles.

    Richard A. Muller , Gordon J. MacDonald , [66] [67] [68] and others have pointed out that those calculations are for a two-dimensional orbit of Earth but the three-dimensional orbit also has a ,year cycle of orbital inclination.

    They proposed that these variations in orbital inclination lead to variations in insolation, as the Earth moves in and out of known dust bands in the solar system.

    Although this is a different mechanism to the traditional view, the "predicted" periods over the last , years are nearly the same. The Muller and MacDonald theory, in turn, has been challenged by Jose Antonio Rial.

    Another worker, William Ruddiman , has suggested a model that explains the ,year cycle by the modulating effect of eccentricity weak ,year cycle on precession 26,year cycle combined with greenhouse gas feedbacks in the 41, and 26,year cycles.

    Yet another theory has been advanced by Peter Huybers who argued that the 41,year cycle has always been dominant, but that the Earth has entered a mode of climate behavior where only the second or third cycle triggers an ice age.

    This would imply that the ,year periodicity is really an illusion created by averaging together cycles lasting 80, and , years. The jumps are induced by the orbital forcing, while in the early Pleistocene the 41,year glacial cycles resulted from jumps between only two climate states.

    A dynamical model explaining this behavior was proposed by Peter Ditlevsen. There are at least two types of variation in the Sun's energy output: [73].

    At times during the paleoclimate, carbon dioxide levels were two or three times greater than today. Volcanoes and movements in continental plates contributed to high amounts of CO 2 in the atmosphere.

    Carbon dioxide from volcanoes probably contributed to periods with highest overall temperatures.

    The current geological period, the Quaternary , which began about 2. The last cold episode of the last glacial period ended about 10, years ago.

    The major glacial stages of the current ice age in North America are the Illinoian , Eemian and Wisconsin glaciation.

    The use of the Nebraskan, Afton, Kansan, and Yarmouthian stages to subdivide the ice age in North America has been discontinued by Quaternary geologists and geomorphologists.

    These stages have all been merged into the Pre-Illinoian in the s. During the most recent North American glaciation, during the latter part of the Last Glacial Maximum 26, to 13, years ago , ice sheets extended to about 45th parallel north.

    These sheets were 3 to 4 kilometres 1. This Wisconsin glaciation left widespread impacts on the North American landscape. The Great Lakes and the Finger Lakes were carved by ice deepening old valleys.

    Most of the lakes in Minnesota and Wisconsin were gouged out by glaciers and later filled with glacial meltwaters. The old Teays River drainage system was radically altered and largely reshaped into the Ohio River drainage system.

    Other rivers were dammed and diverted to new channels, such as Niagara Falls , which formed a dramatic waterfall and gorge, when the waterflow encountered a limestone escarpment.

    Another similar waterfall, at the present Clark Reservation State Park near Syracuse, New York , is now dry.

    The area from Long Island to Nantucket, Massachusetts was formed from glacial till , and the plethora of lakes on the Canadian Shield in northern Canada can be almost entirely attributed to the action of the ice.

    As the ice retreated and the rock dust dried, winds carried the material hundreds of miles, forming beds of loess many dozens of feet thick in the Missouri Valley.

    Post-glacial rebound continues to reshape the Great Lakes and other areas formerly under the weight of the ice sheets. The Driftless Area , a portion of western and southwestern Wisconsin along with parts of adjacent Minnesota , Iowa , and Illinois , was not covered by glaciers.

    A specially interesting climatic change during glacial times has taken place in the semi-arid Andes. Beside the expected cooling down in comparison with the current climate, a significant precipitation change happened here.

    From this follows that—beside of an annual depression of temperature about c. Accordingly, at glacial times the humid climatic belt that today is situated several latitude degrees further to the S, was shifted much further to the N.

    Although the last glacial period ended more than 8, years ago, its effects can still be felt today. For example, the moving ice carved out the landscape in Canada See Canadian Arctic Archipelago , Greenland, northern Eurasia and Antarctica.

    The erratic boulders , till , drumlins , eskers , fjords , kettle lakes , moraines , cirques , horns , etc.

    The weight of the ice sheets was so great that they deformed the Earth's crust and mantle. After the ice sheets melted, the ice-covered land rebounded.

    During glaciation, water was taken from the oceans to form the ice at high latitudes, thus global sea level dropped by about meters, exposing the continental shelves and forming land-bridges between land-masses for animals to migrate.

    During deglaciation , the melted ice-water returned to the oceans, causing sea level to rise. This process can cause sudden shifts in coastlines and hydration systems resulting in newly submerged lands, emerging lands, collapsed ice dams resulting in salination of lakes, new ice dams creating vast areas of freshwater, and a general alteration in regional weather patterns on a large but temporary scale.

    It can even cause temporary reglaciation. This type of chaotic pattern of rapidly changing land, ice, saltwater and freshwater has been proposed as the likely model for the Baltic and Scandinavian regions, as well as much of central North America at the end of the last glacial maximum, with the present-day coastlines only being achieved in the last few millennia of prehistory.

    Also, the effect of elevation on Scandinavia submerged a vast continental plain that had existed under much of what is now the North Sea, connecting the British Isles to Continental Europe.

    The redistribution of ice-water on the surface of the Earth and the flow of mantle rocks causes changes in the gravitational field as well as changes to the distribution of the moment of inertia of the Earth.

    These changes to the moment of inertia result in a change in the angular velocity , axis , and wobble of the Earth's rotation. The weight of the redistributed surface mass loaded the lithosphere , caused it to flex and also induced stress within the Earth.

    The presence of the glaciers generally suppressed the movement of faults below. Earthquakes triggered near the ice margin may in turn accelerate ice calving and may account for the Heinrich events.

    In Europe, glacial erosion and isostatic sinking from weight of ice made the Baltic Sea , which before the Ice Age was all land drained by the Eridanos River.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about a generic geological period of temperature reduction. For the most recent glacial period commonly referred to as the Ice Age, see Last glacial period and Pleistocene.

    For other uses, see Ice age disambiguation. Period of long-term reduction in temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere. See also: History of climate change science.

    Main article: Timeline of glaciation. See also: Glacial period and Interglacial. Minimum and maximum glaciation. Minimum interglacial, black and maximum glacial, grey glaciation of the northern hemisphere.

    Minimum interglacial, black and maximum glacial, grey glaciation of the southern hemisphere. See also: Glacial history of Minnesota.

    See also: Glacial landform. Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series.

    Retrieved 7 January Ice ages: solving the mystery. Short Hills NJ: Enslow Publishers. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany.

    Comptes Rendus Geoscience in French. Bibcode : CRGeo.


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