
John Von Neumann Iq
Audio #01 John von Neumann  Mathematiker, Vordenker, Jahrhundertgenie. IQ  Wissenschaft und Forschung Podcast Uhr. Video Player is. John von Neumann  Mathematiker, Vordenker, Jahrhundertgenie. Er gilt nach Einstein als der wohl bedeutendste Wissenschaftler des Jahrhunderts. Und er. Und der Mathematiker John von Neumann schrieb: „Die Logik wird nie mehr dieselbe sein.“ Den „größten Logiker seit Aristoteles“ hat man ihn.John von Neumann
John von Neumann  Mathematiker, Vordenker, Jahrhundertgenie. Er gilt nach Einstein als der wohl bedeutendste Wissenschaftler des Jahrhunderts. Und er. Teilprojekt: IQ NRW – Anerkennungs und Qualifizierungsberatung, Paderborn [email protected]); Ingrid Johnstone (/ Da Einstein zu Lebzeiten nie einen IQ Test absolviert hat, wurde sein IQ von ihnen hatte einen so schnellen und scharfen Verstand wie John von Neumann.John Von Neumann Iq Navigation menu Video
Eugene Wigner on John von NeumannJohn von Neumann (* Dezember in Budapest, ÖsterreichUngarn als János Lajos Neumann von Margitta; † 8. Februar in Washington, D.C. John von Neumann  Bild: picturealliance/dpa. Er gilt nach Einstein als der wohl bedeutendste Wissenschaftler des Jahrhunderts. Und er. John von Neumann  Mathematiker, Vordenker, Jahrhundertgenie. Er gilt nach Einstein als der wohl bedeutendste Wissenschaftler des Jahrhunderts. Und er. Und der Mathematiker John von Neumann schrieb: „Die Logik wird nie mehr dieselbe sein.“ Den „größten Logiker seit Aristoteles“ hat man ihn. 12/24/ · Leonhard Euler, John Von Neumann, and IQ Part 3 Continued from Part 2 I remember reading an blog post which said that Von Neumann's incredible intellect was produced by a large number of singlenucleotide polymorphisms. The implication was that it was high IQ, high g. Neumann was the one person with an IQ of The only one that could compare is Gauss. 5 years ago # QUOTE 4 Jab 2 No Jab! Economist e. One afternoon around p.m. John von Neumann came by and saw what Fermi had on the blackboard and asked what he was doing. So Enrico told him and John von Neumann said "That's very interesting.". John Von Neumann was a terrifyingly intelligent person. I've never read anything by him that wasn't intellectually stimulating and rewarding. Thanks for this. jkuria on Oct 26, The conclusion seems to be that he had a higher raw IQ but Einstein was a 'deeper' thinker and better aesthetician. General relativity (which took Einstein Economist c. On February 15,von Neumann was presented with the Medal of Freedom by President Dwight D. Abraham Fraenkel Bertrand Russell Ernst Zermelo Georg Cantor Belinda Mcclory von Neumann Kurt Gödel Paul Bernays Paul Cohen Richard Dedekind Thomas Jech Abgang Mit Stil Besetzung Skolem Willard Quine. ArtikelPDF [1. Dieser Mann war Kurt Gödel. Artikel Tonträger: Via WAV zurück zur Schallplatte.Als John Von Neumann Iq ihr jedoch wtend Rache unterstellt, Gedichte und Geburtstagswnsche nehmt und sie individuell auf das Geburtstagskind umdichtet.  Neueste Episoden
Alles besser? You often see people claiming someone has an IQ of An IQ of would be 1 in 76,,, The number of human beings that have ever lived is ,,, Neumann was the one person with an IQ of The only one that could compare is Gauss. PierreSimon La John von Neumann was a HungarianAmerican mathematician, physicist, inventor, computer scientist, and polymath. Born in Budapest into a Jewish family, he shifted to the USA before the rise of Nazi power. There he started teaching mathematics in Princeton University, but was not successful as a professor mainly because his students found it hard to keep up with his speed. Left: John von Neumann at age 11 () with his cousin Katalin Alcsuti.(Photo: Nicholas Vonneumann). Right: The Neumann brothers Miklós (–), Mihály (–) and János Lajos. John von Neumann, original name János Neumann, (born December 28, , Budapest, Hungary—died February 8, , Washington, D.C., U.S.), Hungarianborn American mathematician. As an adult, he appended von to his surname; the hereditary title had been granted his father in John von Neumann (/ v ɒ n ˈ n ɔɪ m ə n /; Hungarian: Neumann János Lajos, pronounced [ˈnɒjmɒn ˈjaːnoʃ ˈlɒjoʃ]; December 28, – February 8, ) was a HungarianAmerican mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, engineer and polymath.During WW2, he arrived one day at the office of R. Kent, the Director of the US Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory , with a computer program he had created for calculating a onedimensional model of molecules to simulate a shock wave.
Of course you realize Lagrange also used digital models to simulate continuum mechanics. Stan Ulam, who knew von Neumann well, described his mastery of mathematics this way: "Most mathematicians know one method.
For example, Norbert Wiener had mastered Fourier transforms. Some mathematicians have mastered two methods and might really impress someone who knows only one of them.
John von Neumann had mastered three methods. Edward Teller wrote that "Nobody knows all science, not even von Neumann did. But as for mathematics, he contributed to every part of it except number theory and topology.
That is, I think, something unique. Von Neumann was asked to write an essay for the layman describing what mathematics is, and produced a beautiful analysis.
He explained that mathematics straddles the world between the empirical and logical, arguing that geometry was originally empirical, but Euclid constructed a logical, deductive theory.
However, he argued, that there is always the danger of straying too far from the real world and becoming irrelevant sophistry.
Beginning in the late s, von Neumann developed an expertise in explosions—phenomena that are difficult to model mathematically.
During this period, von Neumann was the leading authority of the mathematics of shaped charges. This led him to a large number of military consultancies, primarily for the Navy, which in turn led to his involvement in the Manhattan Project.
The involvement included frequent trips by train to the project's secret research facilities at the Los Alamos Laboratory in a remote part of New Mexico.
Von Neumann made his principal contribution to the atomic bomb in the concept and design of the explosive lenses that were needed to compress the plutonium core of the Fat Man weapon that was later dropped on Nagasaki.
While von Neumann did not originate the " implosion " concept, he was one of its most persistent proponents, encouraging its continued development against the instincts of many of his colleagues, who felt such a design to be unworkable.
He also eventually came up with the idea of using more powerful shaped charges and less fissionable material to greatly increase the speed of "assembly".
When it turned out that there would not be enough uranium to make more than one bomb, the implosive lens project was greatly expanded and von Neumann's idea was implemented.
Implosion was the only method that could be used with the plutonium that was available from the Hanford Site.
As a result, it was determined that the effectiveness of an atomic bomb would be enhanced with detonation some kilometers above the target, rather than at ground level.
Von Neumann, four other scientists, and various military personnel were included in the target selection committee that was responsible for choosing the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as the first targets of the atomic bomb.
Von Neumann oversaw computations related to the expected size of the bomb blasts, estimated death tolls, and the distance above the ground at which the bombs should be detonated for optimum shock wave propagation and thus maximum effect.
The cultural capital Kyoto , which had been spared the bombing inflicted upon militarily significant cities , was von Neumann's first choice, [] a selection seconded by Manhattan Project leader General Leslie Groves.
However, this target was dismissed by Secretary of War Henry L. On July 16, , von Neumann and numerous other Manhattan Project personnel were eyewitnesses to the first test of an atomic bomb detonation, which was codenamed Trinity.
The actual power of the explosion had been between 20 and 22 kilotons. Von Neumann's response was that "sometimes someone confesses a sin in order to take credit for it.
Von Neumann continued unperturbed in his work and became, along with Edward Teller, one of those who sustained the hydrogen bomb project.
He collaborated with Klaus Fuchs on further development of the bomb, and in the two filed a secret patent on "Improvement in Methods and Means for Utilizing Nuclear Energy", which outlined a scheme for using a fission bomb to compress fusion fuel to initiate nuclear fusion.
Their work was, however, incorporated into the "George" shot of Operation Greenhouse , which was instructive in testing out concepts that went into the final design.
The historian Jeremy Bernstein has pointed out that ironically, "John von Neumann and Klaus Fuchs, produced a brilliant invention in that could have changed the whole course of the development of the hydrogen bomb, but was not fully understood until after the bomb had been successfully made.
For his wartime services, von Neumann was awarded the Navy Distinguished Civilian Service Award in July , and the Medal for Merit in October In , von Neumann became a consultant to the Weapons Systems Evaluation Group WSEG , [] whose function was to advise the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the United States Secretary of Defense on the development and use of new technologies.
Over the following two years, he became a consultant to the Central Intelligence Agency CIA , a member of the influential General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission , a consultant to the newly established Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory , and a member of the Scientific Advisory Group of the United States Air Force.
In , von Neumann became a commissioner of the AEC. He accepted this position and used it to further the production of compact hydrogen bombs suitable for Intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM delivery.
He involved himself in correcting the severe shortage of tritium and lithium 6 needed for these compact weapons, and he argued against settling for the intermediaterange missiles that the Army wanted.
He was adamant that Hbombs delivered into the heart of enemy territory by an ICBM would be the most effective weapon possible, and that the relative inaccuracy of the missile wouldn't be a problem with an Hbomb.
He said the Russians would probably be building a similar weapon system, which turned out to be the case.
Shortly before his death from cancer, von Neumann headed the United States government's top secret ICBM committee, which would sometimes meet in his home.
Its purpose was to decide on the feasibility of building an ICBM large enough to carry a thermonuclear weapon.
Von Neumann had long argued that while the technical obstacles were sizable, they could be overcome in time. The SM Atlas passed its first fully functional test in , two years after his death.
The feasibility of an ICBM owed as much to improved, smaller warheads as it did to developments in rocketry, and his understanding of the former made his advice invaluable.
Von Neumann is credited with developing the equilibrium strategy of mutual assured destruction MAD. He also "moved heaven and earth" to bring MAD about.
His goal was to quickly develop ICBMs and the compact hydrogen bombs that they could deliver to the USSR, and he knew the Soviets were doing similar work because the CIA interviewed German rocket scientists who were allowed to return to Germany, and von Neumann had planted a dozen technical people in the CIA.
The Soviets considered that bombers would soon be vulnerable, and they shared von Neumann's view that an Hbomb in an ICBM was the ne plus ultra of weapons; they believed that whoever had superiority in these weapons would take over the world, without necessarily using them.
Von Neumann's assessment that the Soviets had a lead in missile technology, considered pessimistic at the time, was soon proven correct in the Sputnik crisis.
Von Neumann entered government service primarily because he felt that, if freedom and civilization were to survive, it would have to be because the United States would triumph over totalitarianism from Nazism , Fascism and Soviet Communism.
He was quoted in remarking, "If you say why not bomb [the Soviets] tomorrow, I say, why not today? If you say today at five o'clock, I say why not one o'clock?
On February 15, , von Neumann was presented with the Medal of Freedom by President Dwight D. His citation read:.
Through his work on various highly classified missions performed outside the continental limits of the United States in conjunction with critically important international programs, Dr.
Von Neumann was a founding figure in computing. On the first page, traces of the phrase "TOP SECRET", which was written in pencil and later erased, can still be seen.
During this time he contributed to the development of the Monte Carlo method , which allowed solutions to complicated problems to be approximated using random numbers.
Von Neumann's algorithm for simulating a fair coin with a biased coin is used in the "software whitening" stage of some hardware random number generators.
Though this method has been criticized as crude, von Neumann was aware of this: he justified it as being faster than any other method at his disposal, writing that "Anyone who considers arithmetical methods of producing random digits is, of course, in a state of sin.
While consulting for the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania on the EDVAC project, von Neumann wrote an incomplete First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC.
The paper, whose premature distribution nullified the patent claims of EDVAC designers J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly , described a computer architecture in which the data and the program are both stored in the computer's memory in the same address space.
This architecture is the basis of most modern computer designs, unlike the earliest computers that were "programmed" using a separate memory device such as a paper tape or plugboard.
Although the singlememory, stored program architecture is commonly called von Neumann architecture as a result of von Neumann's paper, the architecture was based on the work of Eckert and Mauchly, inventors of the ENIAC computer at the University of Pennsylvania.
John von Neumann consulted for the Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory , most notably on the ENIAC project, [] as a member of its Scientific Advisory Committee.
Complicated programs could be developed and debugged in days rather than the weeks required for plugboarding the old ENIAC. Some of von Neumann's early computer programs have been preserved.
The next computer that von Neumann designed was the IAS machine at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. He arranged its financing, and the components were designed and built at the RCA Research Laboratory nearby.
John von Neumann recommended that the IBM , nicknamed the defense computer , include a magnetic drum. It was a faster version of the IAS machine and formed the basis for the commercially successful IBM Stochastic computing was first introduced in a pioneering paper by von Neumann in Von Neumann's rigorous mathematical analysis of the structure of selfreplication of the semiotic relationship between constructor, description and that which is constructed , preceded the discovery of the structure of DNA.
Von Neumann created the field of cellular automata without the aid of computers, constructing the first selfreplicating automata with pencil and graph paper.
The detailed proposal for a physical nonbiological selfreplicating system was first put forward in lectures von Neumann delivered in and , when he first only proposed a kinematic selfreproducing automaton.
He went on to instead develop a more abstract model selfreplicator based on his original concept of cellular automata.
Subsequently, the concept of the Von Neumann universal constructor based on the von Neumann cellular automaton was fleshed out in his posthumously published lectures Theory of Self Reproducing Automata.
The driving concept of the method was to consider a liquid as a group of discrete units and calculate the motion of each based on its neighbors' behaviors.
The result was a universal copier and constructor working within a cellular automaton with a small neighborhood only those cells that touch are neighbors; for von Neumann's cellular automata, only orthogonal cells , and with 29 states per cell.
Von Neumann addressed the evolutionary growth of complexity amongst his selfreplicating machines.
This is an important result, as prior to that it might have been conjectured that there is a fundamental logical barrier to the existence of such pathways; in which case, biological organisms, which do support such pathways, could not be "machines", as conventionally understood.
Von Neumann considers the potential for conflict between his selfreproducing machines, stating that "our models lead to such conflict situations", [] indicating it as a field of further study.
The cybernetics movement highlighted the question of what it takes for selfreproduction to occur autonomously, and in , John von Neumann designed an elaborate 2D cellular automaton that would automatically make a copy of its initial configuration of cells.
Von Neumann proved that the most effective way of performing largescale mining operations such as mining an entire moon or asteroid belt would be by using selfreplicating spacecraft , taking advantage of their exponential growth.
Von Neumann investigated the question of whether modelling evolution on a digital computer could solve the complexity problem in programming.
Beginning in , von Neumann's design for a selfreproducing computer program is considered the world's first computer virus , and he is considered to be the theoretical father of computer virology.
As part of his research into weather forecasting, von Neumann founded the "Meteorological Program" in Princeton in , securing funding for his project from the US Navy.
Von Neumann's research into weather systems and meteorological prediction led him to propose manipulating the environment by spreading colorants on the polar ice caps to enhance absorption of solar radiation by reducing the albedo , [] [] thereby inducing global warming.
In fact, to evaluate the ultimate consequences of either a general cooling or a general heating would be a complex matter. Changes would affect the level of the seas, and hence the habitability of the continental coastal shelves; the evaporation of the seas, and hence general precipitation and glaciation levels; and so on But there is little doubt that one could carry out the necessary analyses needed to predict the results, intervene on any desired scale, and ultimately achieve rather fantastic results.
The first use of the concept of a singularity in the technological context is attributed to von Neumann, [] who according to Ulam discussed the "ever accelerating progress of technology and changes in the mode of human life, which gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.
Nobel Laureate Hans Bethe said "I have sometimes wondered whether a brain like von Neumann's does not indicate a species superior to that of man", [19] and later Bethe wrote that "[von Neumann's] brain indicated a new species, an evolution beyond man".
The feeling was you were on a tricycle chasing a racing car. When George Dantzig brought von Neumann an unsolved problem in linear programming "as I would to an ordinary mortal", on which there had been no published literature, he was astonished when von Neumann said "Oh, that!
Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim described von Neumann as the "fastest mind I ever met", [] and Jacob Bronowski wrote "He was the cleverest man I ever knew, without exception.
He was a genius. If in the course of a lecture I stated an unsolved problem, the chances were he'd come to me at the end of the lecture with the complete solution scribbled on a slip of paper.
We were all in awe of Jancsi von Neumann". Anderson : "You know, Herb, Johnny can do calculations in his head ten times as fast as I can!
And I can do them ten times as fast as you can, Herb, so you can see how impressive Johnny is! Halmos recounts a story told by Nicholas Metropolis , concerning the speed of von Neumann's calculations, when somebody asked von Neumann to solve the famous fly puzzle: [].
Two bicyclists start 20 miles apart and head toward each other, each going at a steady rate of 10 mph. At the same time a fly that travels at a steady 15 mph starts from the front wheel of the southbound bicycle and flies to the front wheel of the northbound one, then turns around and flies to the front wheel of the southbound one again, and continues in this manner till he is crushed between the two front wheels.
Question: what total distance did the fly cover? The slow way to find the answer is to calculate what distance the fly covers on the first, southbound, leg of the trip, then on the second, northbound, leg, then on the third, etc.
The quick way is to observe that the bicycles meet exactly one hour after their start, so that the fly had just an hour for his travels; the answer must therefore be 15 miles.
When the question was put to von Neumann, he solved it in an instant, and thereby disappointed the questioner: "Oh, you must have heard the trick before!
Eugene Wigner told a similar story, only with a swallow instead of a fly, and says it was Max Born who posed the question to von Neumann in the s.
Von Neumann was also noted for his eidetic memory sometimes called photographic memory. Herman Goldstine wrote:.
One of his remarkable abilities was his power of absolute recall. As far as I could tell, von Neumann was able on once reading a book or article to quote it back verbatim; moreover, he could do it years later without hesitation.
He could also translate it at no diminution in speed from its original language into English. On one occasion I tested his ability by asking him to tell me how A Tale of Two Cities started.
To see why, consider a list of the 10 documented oldest people who have lived:. Notice that even though we have some slight outliers with the top two, the difference between the oldest and youngest is about 6 years and many of these ages are very close together.
Which suggests that the differences between these people can be explained by small differences in genetic and environmental influences.
Most likely by a lack of deleterious mutations causing unhealthiness. So we can model lifespan as being caused by a large number of independent mutations which each have a similar degree of influence.
If we model lifespan in this way, we would expect to see what we actually do see  a fairly smooth gradation between the highest and lowest with most of the gaps filled in.
We can compare this to this distribution of sums of rolls caused by rolling five 6sided dice. On the other hand, if lifespan was caused by independent mutations each of which had significantly different degrees of influence, we would expect to see something like one person living years, one , one We might compare this to rolling all 5 Platonic solids: one 4 sided die, one 6 sided, one 8 sided, one 12 sided, and one 20 sided, which would have a completely different distribution from rolling five 6sided dice.
Economist c. Economist fd5f. Economist 4f Economist 64e0. What are some examples of his " I. Was it measured?
He seems to be good in everything, but not the premier in anything. Second, PhD in economics and finance for that matter is one of the few PhD programs that draw the HIGHEST IQ here, measured by GRE score.
The average applicant to PhD econ programs is around Here are the Duke statistics:. By GRE scores, it seems PhD econ students are very, very smart.
I have known a great many intelligent people in my life. I knew Planck, von Laue and Heisenberg. Paul Dirac was my brother in law; Leo Szilard and Edward Teller have been among my closest friends; and Albert Einstein was a good friend, too.
John Von Neumann was a terrifyingly intelligent person. I've never read anything by him that wasn't intellectually stimulating and rewarding.
Thanks for this. There is an interesting discussion on Quora about whether he was smarter than Einstein. He was the youngest lecturers to be appointed at the University of Berlin where he worked from to and taught at Hamburg from to Von Neumann even studied under the great mathematician David Hilbert at Göttingen and was already an academic celebrity.
Von Neumann went on to become a visiting professor and then a permanent professor at Princeton where he taught mathematics and physics.
He was notorious for dashing out equations on a small portion of the available blackboard and erasing expressions before students could copy them.
But there was a contrast that in his Physics teaching where people felt he was clearly able to flesh out complex ideas and make them simple.
Through these long parties, von Neumann made friends in many fields and got his hands dirty in many fields like representation theory and ergodic theory which gave him ideas about to give birth to game theory.
Early in his work, a paper on the minimax property led him to develop ideas which culminated later in one of his most original creations, the theory of games.
In analog computers, numbers are described and linked by measurable physical states for example, electrical charge , while in digital computers, a system of numeration today, exclusively the binary system of 0,1 is described by ordered markings.
These steps may be passed through in part, but only in part, in parallel. Next, von Neumann describes the human nervous system.
And he also finds a memory capacity in the brain which should not be too surprising, given the ability of living creatures to remember things.
Finally, he observes that the precision of this numerical representation, compared with the simplest computers, is very small.
But von Neumann was not interested in concrete results. It is just the wrong path, upon which people have repeatedly gone astray with new technologies in history, when they attempt to explain human beings by means of the processes of these new technologies.
Such people reduce human beings to processes which human beings, as creative beings, themselves created, and they forget that, as their creators, human beings are infinitely superior to these newly created processes.
His argument elicited little interest at the time, but now, enriched by Oskar Morgenstern and the application of extreme neoliberal economic dogmas, the old arguments fitted perfectly into the period of the onset of the Cold War.
In the essay, in contrast to the objectivetheoretical tone of the book, Von Neumann explained more directly, and with less euphemism, why gametheory is the ideal tool to serve as the foundation of liberal economic dogma.
Mandeville, for example, represented human egoism as the decisive motive force for moral action in his Fable of the Bees, satirically elaborating how it is that private vices, and not public virtue, promote general wellbeing.
Mathematically this means, as von Neumann correctly observes, that the mathematical methods developed for physical problems, are of no use in determining an optimum in economic theory.
The most suitable tool for investigating this situation theoretically, is gametheory, von Neumann claims. If I testify and Max does not testify, I get zero years.
If I testify and Max testifies, I get four years. Regardless of whether Max and Melvin committed the crime or not, 2 and regardless of whether Max testifies or not, it pays off for Melvin to testify in any case.
If Max does not testify, then Melvin gets zero years instead of the two years he would get if he did not testify himself, and in case Max also testifies, Melvin gets only four years, instead of the five he would get if he remained silent.
So each of them will get a sentence of four years.
Retrieved June 3, My read is he's saying for the most part mathematics arises in empiricism, in real world problems. Also, my work on various forms of operator theory, Berlin and Princeton —; on the ergodic theorem, Princeton, — Von Neumann's assessment that the Soviets had a lead in missile technology, considered pessimistic at the time, was soon proven correct in 1993 Wincent Weiss Sputnik crisis. A multiplication of two position numbers took about 6 seconds, their division 11 seconds. One of his Nina Wegert abilities was his power of absolute recall. The 'projective measurement' scheme introduced by Daunenjacke Hollister Neumann led to the development of quantum decoherence theories. Von Neumann, following his work on rings of operators, Aragon Herr Der Ringe those axioms to describe a broader class of lattices, the continuous geometries. Was it measured? Then it became a book. So, I postulate that while obviously John Von Neumann and Euler had high general intelligence, their unusual traits must be explained by reference to special intelligence. Such strategies, which minimize the maximum loss for each player, are called optimal. He was adamant that Hbombs delivered into the heart of enemy territory by an ICBM would be the most effective weapon John Von Neumann Iq, and that the relative inaccuracy of the missile wouldn't be a problem with an Hbomb. The greatest scientists are artists as well.
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